Here are some of the problems with this conclusion:
- Why would Cain build a city if he were the third human? Who was to live in the city, since there were only three, then four humans, with Enoch? A city assumes a large population.
- How was Adah "the father of those who live in tents and raise livestock"? Everyone who has lived in a tent or raised livestock has Adah for an ancestor?
- Same with Jubal. How was he "the father of all who play the harp and flute"? Are all our orchestra members who play these two instruments offspring of Jubal?
- The problem with Zilah is that if sectarian scribes are presuming that this event occurred 5,000 years ago, then making tools made of bronze and iron would traverse two eras. The iron age began between 1300 and 600 BC, while the bronze age occurred as early as 3200 BC. These dates correspond to the earliest findings of tools made of these particular metals. If we take this text at face value, then Zilah would have to have lived for nearly 2,000 years in order to make tools from both metals.
- The contradiction with archeological evidence makes this entire genealogy and its interpretation that this is a historical genealogy of humanity, suspect. Archeological evidence finds humanoids living on the early more than a million years ago, and their ancestors over 2 million years ago. While carbon dating does not offer pinpoint accuracy due to periodic changes in the earth's atmosphere, it can certainly determine that humans lived many hundreds of thousands of years before sectarian scribes assume these texts indicate.
Rather than being a compilation as assumed by its present state, Genesis is a conglomeration of separate scrolls that have been patched together in an attempt to promote an assumption that the Jewish people were the primary and "chosen" race, and all other races around the world were "heathens." This attempt to use scripture as a tool for control was advanced by sectarian institutions - the same ones railed on by Jesus - and later by the Romans, who selected and patched together certain Scripture scrolls in an attempt to control Europe and the Middle East by virtue of controlling religion.
Once the Roman-employed scribes patched together what we know today as the Bible from hundreds of sometimes disconnected scrolls - of the thousands of scrolls that were used by different teachers during those times and earlier - they outlawed the possession or reading of any other scroll outside of these in their Latin Bibles (which only the priests or Roman Catholic authorities could possess). As the Romans systematically burnt libraries of scrolls and murdered those harboring ancient texts, they successfully erased the bulk of the scriptural texts that provide the context and the background for the remaining texts that were patched together to form the old and new testaments of the Bible.
The Bible has been pieced together in such a way as to imply that it is a historical record. However, as many historians have found over the years, a meaningful read through the material indicates that these scrolls were not intended to be a history of humanity. The seeming chronological nature of the periods is deceiving, as it often places events and scrolls that were earlier, later, and vice versa.
Other evidence of tampering between the original scrolls and the texts of the Bible - first translated into Latin by Roman scribes - have been found as a few of the original scrolls have been discovered over the centuries.
The recent discoveries of the Dead Sea scrolls and the Nag Hammadi texts have confirmed that many scrolls accepted as scripture by ancient Jews and early Christians were systematically eliminated by the Romans, and at least some of those that were patched together into the Bible were tampered with.
The bottom line is that this genealogy, as many others provided in the books of the Bible, does point to some historical record, but the context of that record is still at large.
We can, however, document that a person who is "a father of all who..." indicates not a race of humanity, but a race of superior individuals. This text is reminiscent of the Greek and Roman and Egyptian mythologies of the gods, as well as Asian Sanscrit records describing various demigods. These records all describe a superior race who were "fathers" of particular traits among human culture, including war, music and others.
Apollo, for example, is described as overseeing music among other traits, while Hermes is described as being the protector of the shepherds and the creator of the lyre (a type of harp).
There are other parts the of the Bible that point to the existence of a superior race of some kind. For example, later in Genesis, we find:
'The Nephilim were on the earth in those days - and also afterward - when the sons of God went to the daughters of men and had children by them. They were the heroes of old, men of renown.' (Gen. 6:4)This obviously indicates that an advanced people lived on the earth thousands of years ago. The use of “heroes of old,” “men of renown” and “sons of God” indicate three essential characteristics: 1) They maintained high levels of integrity and heroism. 2) They were highly respected. 3) They were dedicated to God.
This last point is confirmed by the title “sons of God.” The word “sons” is again translated from the word בן (ben), which can mean “son” but also, according to Gesenius’ lexicon, “a member of a guild, order, class.”
In other words, the more appropriate translation of the word בן (ben) in this case is not “sons of God” but rather, would be something akin to “devoted followers of God” or “loving servants of God.”
We must understand that Scripture is devotional. The Scriptures document the lives of those who have been devoted to loving and serving God. They can therefore only be understood through the eyes of devotion.
While this commentary does not pose to speculate upon these verses, we can state with certainty that these verses provide some kind of historical context, but certainly not a genealogical historical record of the first humans that sectarian institutions interpret them to be.
The most likely intention of these and the other supposed genealogy verses that follow in Genesis is that this is a record of one of the early lineages of Prophets. The Hebrew words הֵם (hem) (translated to "children") and בֵּן (ben) (translated to "son") also have devotional contexts. In the devotional contexts, these relate to being students or followers.
Indeed, the use of the Hebrew word יָלַד (yalad) - translated to "begat" or "fathered" can also have a devotional context. That is, being one's spiritual teacher and bringing the student to the point to where they are born again. Such a tradition of calling one's spiritual teacher "father" has continued even through the sectarian institutions today, where priests are called "father."
Jesus also described this process of being "born again:"
Jesus replied, "Very truly I tell you, no one can see the kingdom of God unless they are born again."These sectarian translations of Genesis and the other early Hebrew books are certainly suspect. Especially given the power struggles and the violence that came with these translations as these sectarian institutions forced indoctrination upon populations of people. If we assume a devotional context to these ancient texts, this would mean the "genealogy" listing is actually a listing of the early Prophets, as spiritual teachers and their early students - who may (or may not in many cases) have also been family members.
"How can someone be born when they are old?" Nicodemus asked. "Surely they cannot enter a second time into their mother's womb to be born!"
Jesus answered, "Very truly I tell you, no one can enter the kingdom of God unless they are born of water and the Spirit. Flesh gives birth to flesh, but the Spirit gives birth to spirit. You should not be surprised at my saying, 'You must be born again.'" (John 3:3-3:7)
The essential issue is that the patchwork of texts assembled into the "Bible" have been tampered with and mistranslated by those with no authority to organize or interpret scripture.
Even so, the remaining texts of the Bible provide a wealth of spiritual lessons ultimately communicated by the Supreme Being. This was the intention of the ancient teachers that orally passed on these teachings before they even were recorded onto scrolls. Those lessons provide the essence of these texts, often hidden within the subterfuge of misinterpretation and translation error.
A perfect example of misinterpretation is the teaching by some sectarian institutions and their teachers that God either has no name or His name is somehow unspeakable. Genesis 4:26, along with so many others in the Scriptures, contradicts this notion:
At that time men began to call on the Name of the LORD. (Genesis 4:26)The words "call on" come from the Hebrew קרא (qara'), which means to "to call, call out, recite, read, cry out, proclaim" according to the lexicon. More specifically, it means:
1) to call, cry, utter a loud sound
2) to call unto, cry (for help), call (with name of God)
3) to proclaim
This indicates that we are not just talking about "calling" like someone would make a phone call or yell for someone. It means to devotionally proclaim God's Holy Name, in prayer, song, and recitation.
This has been the essence of spiritual practice for thousands of years, and has been accepted by all true faiths as a manner of reaching out to God. In other words, this is a method that the Supreme Being has authorized as a facility to reach out and connect with Him.
This text has been largely ignored by ecclesiastical institutions. What does it mean?
The fact is, praising and reciting God's Holy Names has been accepted by the Prophets throughout the Scriptures. Here are a few verses that confirm this:
From there he [Abraham] went on toward the hills east of Bethel and pitched his tent, with Bethel on the west and Ai on the east. There he built an altar to the LORD and called on the Name of the LORD.
...and where he had first built an altar. There Abram called on the Name of the LORD.
Abraham planted a tamarisk tree in Beersheba, and there he called upon the Name of the LORD, the Eternal God.
"...I bowed down and worshiped the LORD. I praised the LORD, the God of my master Abraham, who had led me..."
Isaac built an altar there and called on the Name of the LORD. There he pitched his tent, and there his servants dug a well.
Exodus 9:16 [God speaking to Moses]
"But I have raised you up for this very purpose, that I might show you My power and that My Name might be proclaimed in all the earth."
"You shall not misuse the Name of the LORD your God, for the LORD will not hold anyone guiltless who misuses his Name."
"Make an altar of earth for Me... Wherever I cause My Name to be honored, I will come to you and bless you."
"...he may minister in the Name of the LORD his God like all his fellow Levites who serve there in the presence of the LORD."
"Then all the peoples on earth will see that You are called by the Name of the LORD, and they will revere You."
"I will proclaim the Name of the LORD. Oh, praise the greatness of our God!"
2 Samuel 6:18:
After he had finished sacrificing the burnt offerings and fellowship offerings, he blessed the people in the Name of the LORD Almighty.
1 Kings 3:2:
The people, however, were still sacrificing at the high places, because a temple had not yet been built for the Name of the LORD.
1 Kings 5:5:
"I intend, therefore, to build a temple for the Name of the LORD my God, as the LORD told my father David, when He said, 'Your son whom I will put on the throne in your place will build the temple for my Name.'"
1 Kings 8:17:
"My father David had it in his heart to build a temple for the Name of the LORD, the God of Israel."
1 Kings 8:18:
But the LORD said to my father David, ‘You did well to have it in your heart to build a temple for My Name.'
1 Kings 8:20:
"The LORD has kept the promise he made: I have succeeded David my father and now I sit on the throne of Israel, just as the LORD promised, and I have built the temple for the Name of the LORD, the God of Israel."
1 Kings 10:1:
When the queen of Sheba heard about the fame of Solomon and his relation to the Name of the LORD, she came to test him with hard questions.
1 Kings 18:24:
"I will call on the Name of the LORD."
1 Kings 18:32:
With the stones he built an altar in the Name of the LORD, and he dug a trench around it large enough to hold two seahs of seed.
1 Kings 22:16:
The king said to him, "How many times must I make you swear to tell me nothing but the truth in the Name of the LORD ?"
2 Kings 2:24:
He turned around, looked at them and called down a curse on them in the Name of the LORD.
2 Kings 5:11:
But Naaman went away angry and said, "I thought that he would surely come out to me and stand and call on the Name of the LORD his God, wave his hand over the spot and cure me of my leprosy."
"Sing to the LORD! Give praise to the LORD! He rescues the life of the needy from the hands of the wicked."
1 Chronicles 16:2:
After David had finished sacrificing the burnt offerings and fellowship offerings, he blessed the people in the Name of the LORD.
1 Chronicles 21:19:
So David went up in obedience to the word that Gad had spoken in the Name of the LORD.
1 Chronicles 22:7:
David said to Solomon: "My son, I had it in my heart to build a house for the Name of the LORD my God."
1 Chronicles 22:19:
"Now devote your heart and soul to seeking the LORD your God. Begin to build the sanctuary of the LORD God, so that you may bring the ark of the covenant of the LORD and the sacred articles belonging to God into the temple that will be built for the Name of the LORD."
1 Chronicles 29:10:
David praised the LORD in the presence of the whole assembly...
2 Chronicles 2:1:
Solomon gave orders to build a temple for the Name of the LORD and a royal palace for himself.
2 Chronicles 2:4:
"Now I am about to build a temple for the Name of the LORD my God and to dedicate it to Him for burning fragrant incense before Him, for setting out the consecrated bread regularly, and for making burnt offerings every morning and evening and on Sabbaths and New Moons and at the appointed feasts of the LORD our God. This is a lasting ordinance for Israel."
2 Chronicles 6:7
"My father David had it in his heart to build a temple for the Name of the LORD, the God of Israel."
2 Chronicles 6:10:
"The LORD has kept the promise he made. I have succeeded David my father and now I sit on the throne of Israel, just as the LORD promised, and I have built the temple for the Name of the LORD, the God of Israel."
2 Chronicles 18:15:
The king said to him, "How many times must I make you swear to tell me nothing but the truth in the Name of the LORD ?"
2 Chronicles 20:19:
Then some Levites from the Kohathites and Korahites stood up and praised the LORD, the God of Israel, with a very loud voice.
2 Chronicles 30:22:
For the seven days they ate their assigned portion and offered fellowship offerings and praised the LORD
2 Chronicles 33:18:
The other events of Manasseh's reign, including his prayer to his God and the words the seers spoke to him in the Name of the LORD, the God of Israel, are written in the annals of the kings of Israel.
"Naked I came from my mother's womb, and naked I will depart. The LORD gave and the LORD has taken away; may the Name of the LORD be praised."
Ezra praised the LORD, the great God
"Stand up and praise the LORD your God, who is from everlasting to everlasting." "Blessed be Your glorious Name, and may it be exalted above all blessing and praise.
Then Daniel praised the God of heaven
"But let all who take refuge in You be glad; let them ever sing for joy. Spread Your protection over them, that those who love Your Name may rejoice in You."
"I will give thanks to the LORD because of His righteousness and will sing praise to the Name of the LORD Most High."
Psalm 8:1 and 8:9:
"LORD, our Lord, how majestic is Your Name in all the earth!"
"I will be glad and rejoice in You; I will sing the praises of Your Name, O Most High."
"Those who know Your Name trust in You, for You, LORD, have never forsaken those who seek You."
"Therefore I will praise You, LORD, among the nations; I will sing the praises of Your Name."
"May the LORD answer you when you are in distress; may the Name of the God of Jacob protect you."
"Some trust in chariots and some in horses, but we trust in the Name of the LORD our God."
"I will declare Your Name to my people; in the assembly I will praise You."
"The LORD is my Shepherd, I lack nothing. He makes me lie down in green pastures, He leads me beside quiet waters, He refreshes my soul. He guides me along the right paths for His Name's sake."
"Ascribe to the LORD the glory due His Name; worship the LORD in the splendor of His Holiness."
"Sing the praises of the LORD, you His faithful people; praise His Holy Name."
"Since You are my rock and my fortress, for the sake of Your Name lead and guide me."
"In Him our hearts rejoice, for we trust in His Holy Name."
"Glorify the LORD with me; let us exalt His Name together."
"In God we make our boast all day long, and we will praise Your Name forever."
"Like Your Name, O God, Your praise reaches to the ends of the earth; Your right hand is filled with righteousness."
"Save me, O God, by Your Name"
"I will sacrifice a freewill offering to You; I will praise Your Name, LORD, for it is good."
"Then I will ever sing in praise of Your Name and fulfill my vows day after day."
"I will praise You as long as I live, and in Your Name I will lift up my hands.."
"Sing the glory of His name; make His praise glorious."
"All the earth bows down to You; they sing praise to You, they sing the praises of Your Name."
"Sing to God, sing in praise of His Name, extol Him who rides on the clouds; rejoice before Him — His name is the LORD."
"I will praise God’s Name in song and glorify Him with thanksgiving."
"Praise be to His glorious Name forever; may the whole earth be filled with His glory. Amen and Amen."
"God is renowned in Judah; in Israel His name is great."
"Help us, God our Savior, for the glory of Your Name; deliver us and forgive our sins for Your Name’s sake."
"I will praise You, Lord my God, with all my heart; I will glorify Your Name forever."
"They rejoice in Your Name all day long; they celebrate Your righteousness."
"Because he loves Me," says the LORD, "I will rescue him; I will protect him, for he acknowledges My Name.He will call on Me, and I will answer him; I will be with him in trouble, I will deliver him and honor him.With long life I will satisfy him and show him My salvation."
" It is good to praise the LORD and make music to Your Name, O Most High"
"Sing to the LORD, praise His Name; proclaim His salvation day after day."
"Ascribe to the LORD the glory due His Name; bring an offering and come into His courts."
"Rejoice in the LORD, you who are righteous, and praise His Holy Name."
"Let them praise Your great and awesome Name — He is holy."
"Moses and Aaron were among His priests, Samuel was among those who called on His name; they called on the LORD and He answered them."
"Enter His gates with thanksgiving and His courts with praise; give thanks to Him and praise His Name."
"The nations will revere the Name of the LORD, all the kings of the earth will revere Your glory."
"So the Name of the LORD will be declared in Zion and His praise in Jerusalem."
"Of David. Praise the LORD, my soul; all my inmost being, praise His Holy Name."
"Give praise to the LORD, proclaim His Name; make known among the nations what He has done."
"Glory in His Holy Name; let the hearts of those who seek the LORD rejoice."
"Save us, LORD our God, and gather us from the nations, that we may give thanks to Your Holy Name and glory in Your praise."
"Holy and awesome is His Name."
"Praise the LORD. Praise, O servants of the LORD, praise the Name of the LORD."
"Let the Name of the LORD be praised, both now and forevermore."
"From the rising of the sun to the place where it sets, the Name of the LORD is to be praised."
"Not to us, LORD, not to us but to Your Name be the glory, because of Your love and faithfulness."
"Then I called on the Name of the LORD: "O LORD, save me!""
"I will lift up the cup of salvation and call on the Name of the LORD."
"I will sacrifice a thank offering to You and call on the Name of the LORD."
"Turn to me and have mercy on me, as you always do to those who love Your Name."
"That is where the tribes go up, the tribes of the LORD, to praise the Name of the LORD according to the statute given to Israel."
"Our help is in the Name of the LORD, the Maker of heaven and earth."
"May those who pass by not say, "The blessing of the LORD be upon you; we bless you in the Name of the LORD."
"Praise the LORD. Praise the Name of the LORD; praise Him, you servants of the LORD"
"Praise the LORD, for the LORD is good; sing praise to His name, for that is pleasant."
"Your Name, LORD, endures forever, your renown, LORD, through all generations."
"I will bow down toward your holy temple and will praise Your Name for your unfailing love and your faithfulness"
"Surely the righteous will praise Your Name, and the upright will live in Your presence."
"Set me free from my prison, that I may praise Your Name."
" I will exalt You, my God the King; I will praise Your Name for ever and ever."
"Every day I will praise You and extol Your Name for ever and ever."
"My mouth will speak in praise of the LORD. Let every creature praise His Holy Name for ever and ever."
"Let them praise the Name of the LORD, for He commanded and they were created."
"Let them praise the Name of the LORD, for His Name alone is exalted; His splendor is above the earth and the heavens."
"Let them praise His Name with dancing and make music to Him with timbrel and harp."
"The Name of the LORD is a strong tower; the righteous run to it and are safe."
"At that time gifts will be brought to the LORD Almighty from a people tall and smooth-skinned, from a people feared far and wide, an aggressive nation of strange speech, whose land is divided by rivers — the gifts will be brought to Mount Zion, the place of the Name of the LORD Almighty."
"Therefore in the east give glory to the LORD; exalt the Name of the LORD, the God of Israel, in the islands of the sea."
"Let him who walks in the dark, who has no light, trust in the Name of the LORD and rely on his God."
"Seek the LORD while He may be found; call on Him while He is near."
"And foreigners who bind themselves to the LORD to serve Him, to love the Name of the LORD, and to worship Him..."
"For this is what the high and exalted One says — He who lives forever, whose Name is holy..."
"From the west, men will revere the Name of the LORD, and from the rising of the sun, they will revere His glory."
"At that time they will call Jerusalem The Throne of the LORD, and all nations will gather in Jerusalem to honor the Name of the LORD. No longer will they follow the stubbornness of their evil hearts."
Sing to the LORD! Give praise to the LORD! He rescues the life of the needy from the hands of the wicked.
Then the officials and all the people said to the priests and the prophets, "This man should not be sentenced to death! He has spoken to us in the Name of the LORD our God."
Now Uriah son of Shemaiah from Kiriath Jearim was another man who prophesied in the Name of the LORD
"Praise be to the Name of God for ever and ever; wisdom and power are His."
"You will have plenty to eat, until you are full, and you will praise the Name of the LORD your God, who has worked wonders for you; never again will my people be shamed."
"And everyone who calls on the Name of the LORD will be saved"
"...we will walk in the Name of the LORD our God for ever and ever."
"He will stand and shepherd his flock in the strength of the LORD, in the majesty of the Name of the LORD his God."
[LORD God says] "My Name will be great among the nations, from where the sun rises to where it sets. In every place incense and pure offerings will be brought to Me, because My Name will be great among the nations," says the LORD Almighty.
[LORD God says] “But for you who revere My Name, the sun of righteousness will rise with healing in its wings. And you will go out and leap like calves released from the stall.”
"I will strengthen them in the LORD and in His Name they will live securely," declares the LORD.
[LORD God says] "They will call on My Name and I will answer them; I will say, 'They are my people,' and they will say, 'The LORD is our God.'"
"Then will I purify the lips of the peoples, that all of them may call on the Name of the LORD and serve Him shoulder to shoulder."
"But I will leave within you the meek and humble, who trust in the Name of the LORD."
Luke 11:2 and Matthew 6:9:
"Our Father in heaven, Hallowed be Your Name."
Matthew 21:9, Matthew 23:39, Mark 11:9, Luke 13:35, Luke 19:38, and John 12:13:
"Blessed is he who comes in the Name of the Lord!"
"In the same way, let your light shine before men, that they may see your good deeds and praise your Father in heaven."
"Holy Father, protect them by the power of Your Name, the Name you gave me, so that they may be one as we are one."
When the crowd saw this, they were filled with awe; and they praised God...
The people were amazed when they saw the mute speaking, the crippled made well, the lame walking and the blind seeing. And they praised the God of Israel.
He got up, took his mat and walked out in full view of them all. This amazed everyone and they praised God
Simeon took him in his arms and praised God.
They were all filled with awe and praised God. “A great prophet has appeared among us,” they said. “God has come to help his people.”
Then he put his hands on her, and immediately she straightened up and praised God.
Immediately he received his sight and followed Jesus, praising God. When all the people saw it, they also praised God.
The centurion, seeing what had happened, praised God...
Matthew 11:25 and Luke 10:21:
“I praise You, Father, Lord of heaven and earth"
John 17:26 (Jesus praying to God):
"And I have declared unto them Your Name, and will declare it"
And they stayed continually at the temple, praising God.
"With the tongue we praise our Lord and Father..."
"Brothers, as an example of patience in the face of suffering, take the prophets who spoke in the Name of the Lord."
1 Peter 1:3:
"Praise be to the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ!"
"And everyone who calls on the Name of the Lord will be saved."
Then he went with them into the temple courts, walking and jumping, and praising God.
So Saul stayed with them and moved about freely in Jerusalem, speaking boldly in the Name of the Lord.Acts 10:46:
For they heard them speaking in tongues and praising God.
About midnight Paul and Silas were praying and singing hymns to God, and the other prisoners were listening to them.
2 Timothy 2:19:
"Nevertheless, God's solid foundation stands firm, sealed with this inscription: "The Lord knows those who are His," and, "Everyone who confesses the Name of the Lord must turn away from wickedness."
"Everyone who calls on the Name of the Lord will be saved."
2 Corinthians 11:31:
"The God and Father of the Lord Jesus Who is to be praised forever..."
Speak to one another with psalms, hymns and spiritual songs. Sing and make music in your heart to the Lord.
Let the word of Christ dwell in you richly as you teach and admonish one another with all wisdom, and as you sing psalms, hymns and spiritual songs with gratitude in your hearts to God.
"Through Jesus, therefore, let us continually offer to God a sacrifice of praise—the fruit of lips that openly profess His Name."
Then a voice came from the throne, saying: “Praise our God, all you His servants, you who revere Him, both great and small!”Rather than getting wound up with trying to prove historical details among the texts of the Bible, our intent should be to draw out the critical lessons being taught there. And it is clear that one of the most important lessons is that spiritual advancement is achieved through the humble and respectful singing and reciting of God's Holy Names.
See a list of God's Holy Names accepted by various scriptures here.